One of the key roles of Transparency International Slovakia is to carry out professional research and provide analyses. These are based on surveys, rankings and also regular monitoring of social development in Slovakia.
- Government and Parliamentary Research and Analysis
- Municipal Research and Analysis
- The first ranking of transparency in counties
- CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index)
- Global Corruption Barometer
- TIS Surveys
The best anti-corruption law during the government of Iveta Radičová was the amendment of the bill on judges and lay assessors, which introduced publishing the decisions of judges on the internet, public selection procedures of judges, and more detailed property declaration forms for judges. This is the result of Transparency International Slovakia’s ranking based on the opinion of thirteen invited experts, who evaluated twenty anti-corruption laws proposed in the parliament in the last electoral term.
With a narrow difference, the second place belongs to obligatory publishing of contracts on the internet, and the third place belong to another amendment concerning judges and lay assessors, which introduces regular 5-year assessment of the judges’ work and publishing reports on their work on the internet. All three measures were introduced by the Ministry of Justice (the ranking of utility of individual bills can be found in Appendix 1)
Members of Parliament
The most active MP in voting for anti-corruption measures was Miroslav Beblavý (SDKÚ-DS), followed byKamil Krnáč (SaS) and Jana Žitňanská (KDH). All three are MPs who differ from their party colleagues by introducing their own legislative initiative. Beblavý with Krnáč introduced an amendment of public procurement introducing electronic auctions, Beblavý and Žitňanská introduced a university-related amendment about publishing theses. All three together proposed changes in the process of assigning the EU funds, which among other things specifies persons who mustn’t decide about subsidies due to conflict of interest and also the amount of compulsory published information such as the names of members of the evaluation committees. Beblavý proposed on his own that the state must sell property worth more than 10,000 EUR in electronic auctions.
The worst voting MPs were Peter Žiga (Smer-SD) a Igor Štefanov (SNS). From all the positive measures, Žiga voted only for cancelling the immunity from minor offences and for introducing the “boards of shame”. Igor Štefanov gained positive points only for voting in favor of an amendment concerning prosecutors’ offices introduced by Smer. Compared to Žiga, he gained in score by being absent during the votes.
The most active in voting for anti-corruption measures was the KDH club, followed by SDKÚ-DS and Most-Híd. KDH’s first place can be explained by a good attendance at votes and a high number of active MPs in this relatively small club (the active ones were especially Žitňanská, Procházka, Hrušovský, and Sabolová). SaS taking the last place from within the coalition is the result of voting against an amendment of the building code and to a certain extent also against the consumers’ “boards of shame”.
On the other hand, the anti-corruption agenda was torpedoed the most by the club Smer-SD. None of the opposition MPs ended with a positive score, which means that all of the MPs from Smer-SD and SNS voted mostly against the measures which experts considered positive, including compulsory publishing of contracts or electronic auctions. The differences between the parties Smer and SNS was created almost exclusively by absence at the votes, not a by a different attitude toward the proposed anti-corruption laws.
The evaluation was conducted by 13 anti-corruption experts: Gabriel Šípoš (director of Transparency), advocates Tomáš Kamenec, Pavel Nechala (Transparency) and Vladimír Pirošík (Transaprency), political scientist Ivan Rončák (Transaprency), professor Juraj Nemec (Univerzita Mateja Bela), director of SGI Ctibor Košťál, Vladimír Špánik (secretary of Združenie občanov miest a obcí Slovenska), Richard Drutarovský, analyst, mediator, and a member of the municipal parliament in Prešov, Dušan Zachar (analyst at INEKO), Ľuba Vávrová (Centrum rozvoja samospráv) Ľubomír Plai (an expert on public administration) a Jíří Vlach (Transparency).
A detailed description of the methodology used in the analysis can be found in Appendix 3 of the press release (in Slovak).
The data file is available at http://bit.ly/Hodnotenie2012 (xls)
Emília Sičáková-Beblavá from TIS has never participated in evaluation of the work of the parliament or the government. The evaluation is carried out by TIS as a part of the project on making politicians responsible, which was supported by Open Society Institute.
One of TIS’ key research areas is municipal government. Based on our research, TIS regularly compiles a set of anti-corruption recommendations for municipalities.
Examples of recent TIS actitivies
Slovak local governments administer more than € 3.5 billion each year. 50 per cent of Slovaks live in 100 largest municipalities. To see how open and transparent these municipalities are towards their tax payers, Transparency International Slovakia (TIS) conducted the Open Local Government 2012 study. During September-November 2012 TIS evaluated information available on local websites, replies provided by municipalities through Freedom of Information requests, as well as anti-corruption measures already in force and created the ranking of the most and least open municipalities in Slovakia.
Šaľa, Martin, and Rožňava have the most open self-governments in Slovakia for 2012. The least open are Vranov nad Topľou and Bytča.
|4.||Bratislava – Petržalka||71%||A-|
|5.||Žiar nad Hronom||69%||B+|
The findings of the first evaluation of counties in the ranking Open Local Government by Transparency International Slovakia from 2011 are that transparency of Slovak counties is lagging behind the largest Slovak cities. The ranking evaluated the counties in 11 areas (e.g. providing information on the work of the office and MPs, HR policy, property letting, assigning grants and subsidies, etc.) based on 126 indicators (e.g. the form of published contracts and invoices, the use of electronic auctions, etc.)
The average among all counties was only 46 points out of 100, while the best county was awarded only 53 points. At the same time, the average among cities in a similar evaluation was 55 points, with the best achieving 70. The county of Banská Bystrica (Banskobystrický samosprávny kraj – BBSK) was the most transparent county in 2011, followed by the counties of Žilina and Bratislava. The county of Trenčín ranked the worst, having achieved only a third of the maximum possible points.
More information about the results and the methodology employed can be found on the project’s website.
According to the newest Corruption Perceptions Index 2013 by Transparency International, Slovakia ranked 61st out of 177 evaluated countries. It is the fifth-worst ranking among EU countries. Only Romania, Italy, Bulgaria, and Greece ranked worse. On the whole, the cleanest countries are New Zealand, Denmark, and Finland. On the other hand, the most corrupt countries are Afghanistan, North Korea, and Somalia. For more information see the press release (in Slovak) or the website of Transparency International dedicated to the CPI 2013
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is calculated by Transparency International’s central office in Berlin. For Slovakia, the index includes data from surveys by seven institutions (World Economic Forum, Freedom House, The Economist Intelligence Unit, Insitute for Management Development, Bertelsmann Foundation, and analytic agencies IHS Global Insight, and Political Risk Services) taking place during the year 2012 and the beginning of 2013. The surveys have been conducted among domestic and foreign investors and analysts. Thee concerned only corruption in the public sector.
Due to changes in the Index’ methodology, the results are not comparable with the results of previous years. The changes will, however, allow for easier search and more objective comparison of countries’ development between years in future.
Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index is the most cited index of transparency in the world. It is often used by global companies when considering new investments, but also in forming foreign relations between countries. Even the national program of reforms approved by the government of Iveta Radičová and accepted by the current government uses this ranking as one of the two indicators of the government’s success at fighting corruption.
Press release (PDF) (in Slovak)
Every fourth Slovak household, handling any problem last year in health care, gave the bribe. Further, the most frequent experience was with bribery on land offices (15.8%), offices offering certificates and licenses (15.6%) and courts (14.8%). It resulted from the survey Global Corruption Barometer 2010 conducted by Transparency International Slovakia, in cooperation with the United Nations Development Fund and the British Embassy in Slovakia.
Research results presented by Gabriel Sipos on December, 9th, 2010, The World Day of against Corruption shows that Slovaks perceive the courts as the most corrupt institution. Almost half of the population is confident (45.3%) that the courts are completely or very corrupt. For other positions Slovaks see the officials in state and public administration (38.1%) and business (36.9%).
Only 8% of Slovaks asked for a bribe in the last year reported corruption. One third of those would not report corruption argues, that it would not solve anything (31.5%), one fourth of them is afraid of retaliation (25.9%).
The Global Corruption Barometer, conducted by Transparency International, is a survey that assesses general public attitudes toward, and experience of, corruption in dozens of countries around the world. Worldwide seventh year of Barometer 2010, is historically the largest and includes the views of more than 90 000 respondents from 87 countries. In Slovakia Barometer was surveyed for the first time.
For more information:
- Press release presenting the results of the Global Corruption Barometer (PDF) (in Slovak)
- Questions and Answers about Global Corruption Barometer (PDF) (in Slovak)
- Sites of survey (in English) – http://transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/gcb
- Full results of the Slovak part of the survey together with a questionnaire (PDF) (in Slovak)
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion polls, which are commissioned by the European Commission. TIS is mostly interested in the eurobarometer which focuses on the topic of corruption and opinions of Europeans on it. Since the accession into the EU, there have been 3 barometers on corruption (2005, 2007, 2009). The methodology for collectiong data for a Eurobarometer are different from the CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index – see above). Eurobarometer is based on data from a representative sample of general population. Therefore it is more likely that the results of a Eurobarometer reflect especially petty or small corruption (e.g. bribes by ordinary citizens for preferential medical treatment). By contrast, CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index) reflects more economic corruption (e.g. public tenders, privatisation, etc.) Hence, the results of the last CPI and Eurobarometer neither contradict each other, nor are incompatible. They reflect different forms of corruption and their data sources and respondents are different.
- Eurobarometer: Attitudes of Europeans towards Corruption Full report, Nov. 2009 (English)
- Eurobarometer: Attitudes of Europeans towards Corruption Full report, April 2008 (English)
- Eurobarometer: Opinions on organised, cross-border crime and corruption, March 2006 (English)
TIS regularly orders opinion polls and does own surveys thanks to which it follows the public perception of corruption in Slovakia. TIS surveys and opinion polls similarly to Eurobarometer opinion polls are carried out by external providers which then perform the surveys on representative samples of populations (usually more than 1000 respondents).
The last TIS’ national survey to be carried out in this way was the December 2009 Perception of Corruption in Slovakia opinion poll. It for example showed that compared to 2006, perception of clientelism at courts increased by a third and that the Robert Fico’s government received the same score for the fight against corruption as the second Mikuláš Dzurinda’s government had received at the time.
In August 2010, TIS had a qualitative opinion poll carried out in the towns of Martin and Krupina and an extra quantitative survey in Martin. The surveys brought interesting results regarding the perception of locals on corruption in their respective municipalities.
- Perception of Corruption in Slovakia, Nov. 2009 [Slovak]
- Qualitative opinion poll in Martin and Krupina, Aug. 2010 [Slovak]
- Quantitative opinion poll in Martin, Aug. 2010 [Slovak]